HOME -  DHAMMAPADA -  CHANTING -  BUDDHIST BOOKS  - BUDDHIST NEWS -  BUDDHIST VIDEO SERMONS -  ARTICLES -  WALLPAPERS 
EBOOKS
 - RESOURCES - SITE SEARCH - LINKS  - TELL A FRIEND ABOUT THIS WEBSITE

Find us on Facebook

Suffering follows the evil doer
Yamaka Vagga (Twin verses)

1 (1) The Story of the Monk Cakkhupàla (Verse 1)

Mind is the forerunner of (all evil) states. Mind is chief; mind-made are they. If one speaks or acts with wicked mind, because of that, suffering follows one, even as the wheel follows the hoof of the draught-ox

Manopubbangama dhamma
manosettha manomaya
Manasa ce padutthena
bhasati va karoti va
Tato nam dukkhamanveti
cakkam'va vahato padam.



A middle-aged devout person, named Cakkhupala, became a monk and was energetically leading a contemplative life. As a result of his strenuous endeavor he realized Arahantship, the final stage of Sainthood, but unfortunately went blind.

One day as he was pacing up and down the ambulatory when he unintentionally killed many insects. Some visiting monks, noticing the stained ambulatory, complained to the Buddha that he had committed the offence of killing. The Buddha explained that the monk had killed them unintentionally and that he was an Arahant.

The monks then wished to know the cause of his blindness. The Buddha related that in a past birth, as a physician, that particular monk had given an ointment to a poor woman to restore her eyesight. She promised that, with her children, she would become his servants if her eyesight was restored. The physician's remedy proved effective, but the woman, not willing to keep her promise, pretended that her eyes were getting worse. The cruel physician, yielding to a wicked thought, retaliated by giving her another ointment which blinded her eyes. In consequence of his past evil action the Arahant became blind.

This is the retributive aspect of the law of Kamma, the other being the continuative aspect.

THE TWIN VERSES
The transmission of individual characteristics, impressions, tendencies, etc. throughout one's wanderings in Samsara. An Arahant, though free from all impurities, has to reap the fruit of the seed he himself had sown in the remote past. The Buddhas and Arahants do not accumulate fresh Kamma as they have eradicated the roots-ignorance and craving—but, as every other being, they are not exempt from the inevitable consequences of both good and bad past actions.

1. Yamaka means a pair. This chapter is so named because it consists of ten pairs of parallel verses.

2. Dhamma is a term of many meanings. Here it is used in the sense of Kamma or Karma which denotes volition {cetana) and the other accompanying mental states found in any particular moral or immoral type of consciousness. In this verse the term Dhamma refers to evil mental states (cetasikas). Without a mind or consciousness no such mental states arise. Hence mind is the forerunner of all good and bad mental states. Cetana or volition is the most important of all mental states. It is this volition that constitutes Kamma, for the Buddha says—"I declare that cetana (volition) is Kamma".

Mind precedes all actions and serves as the principal element both in performing and in assessing deeds. It is mind that rules and shapes action. Words and deeds are also produced by mind.
In this pair of parallel verses the Buddha emphasizes the great part the mind plays in man's life, and then explains how deeds become good or evil according to the pure and impure state of the mind. Lastly, He speaks of the inevitable consequences of such deeds, giving two homely illustrations. "Things are forerun by mind"—Mrs. Rhys Davids.

(The mental) natures are the result of what we have thought"— Radhakrishnan.

"All that we are is the result of what we have thought"—Irving Babbit. Arahant, literally, means a Worthy One or a Pure One who has destroyed all passions. He accumulates no more fresh Kamma to condition a future rebirth as he has eradicated ignorance and craving. He has put an end to both birth and death. He may reap the effects of his past good and bad Kamma till the expiration of the life-term of his last existence.


HOME | RESOURCES | SITE MAP | MORE BOOKS | DISCLAIMER | CONTACT | DEUTSCH | FRANÇAIS

©2010 Maithri.com